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English系列之思维练习错题笔记

Yesterday I had a phone call from Clint. I was very surprised. I __ (write) to him many times but he __ (never, reply) to my letters.
答案:had written, had never replied
解析:两个或两个以上相继发生的动作,用and或but按动作发生的先后顺序连接,此时要用一般过去时,而不用过去完成时。过去完成时则强调主语在过去的某一时刻“回顾”更早的动作。具体来说,如果在谈论过去某一事件时,又想到在这之前已发生的某事,就要用过去完成时态。

A: I need to find a dermatologist.(皮肤科医生) You’re familiar with Dr. Smith. Do you recommend her?
B: Well, I __ (see) by her a few times. And the best I can say for her is she has interesting magazines in her waiting room.
答案:have been seen
解析:在英语中,“动作表达”的完成时态强调最近发生的事件,而“状态表达”的完成时态强调“较远的过去”经历。

It’s reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory __ (rise) by about 10%.
答案:will have risen
解析:将来完成时是以“将来”作为“坐标时间”,来表示开始于将来之前(可能是过去、现在或将来)的动作持续到将来。但动作开始的时间并不重要,关键是说话人要站在将来的某一时间来谈某一动作的完成情况。

I have entered the university for two years.
答案:错误,应改为:I have been in the university for two years,或者用一般过去时态说成:I entered the university two years ago.

He has left his native place for three years.
答案:“单一事件”完成时的肯定句不与持续的时间状语连用,动词leave(left的原形)是非延续性动词,不能跟一段时间状语(否定句除外)。

A: Are you glad you came to China?
B: Yes. Indeed. 我本来是要考虑去Tokyo or Singapore, but 我从不后 悔我的决定。
答案:I’d considered going to Tokyo or Singapore, but I’ve never regretted my decision.
解析:表示“非真实”的过去,主要是指intend,mean,hope,want,plan,suppose,expect, think,propose和wish等动词用于过去完成时,可表示过去未能实现的计划、设想、意图或希望等。

George would certainly have attended the proceedings __.
A. had he not had a flat tire
B. had the tire no flattened itself
C. if the flat tire hadn’t happened
D. if he didn’t get a flat tire
答案:A

If Greek civilization __ all of Europe, English wouldn’t contain so many Greek words.
A. hadn’t influenced
B. doesn’t influence
C. hasn’t influenced
D. didn’t influence
答案:A

Nelson __ the fight, with a little more training and a better manager.
A. would win
B. had won
C. could have won
D. won
答案:C
解析:尼尔森本可以赢得这场战斗,但需要更多的训练和更好的教练。

He would rather __ than worked last night.
A. have slept
B. has slept
C. sleep
D. slept
答案:A
解析:本题考查 would rather have done 的虚拟句型,本题相当于“He would rather have slept than have worked last night.” ,后边的 have 被省去了。

If the climate had been more favorable, the crops __ still better.
A. would have grown
B. would be growing
C. would be grown
D. will grow
答案:A

These facts suggested that women __ in opportunity for physical exercise by cultural taboos.
A. should been limited
B. had been limited
C. be limited
D. have been limited
答案:B
解析:这里的 suggested 是“表明,显示”而不是“建议”的意思,因而不用虚拟语气。

The result has turned still worse than it __
A. would otherwise have been
B. would be otherwise
C. has otherwise been
D. had otherwise been
答案:A
解析:这里有 otherwise ,表明要用虚拟,且是虚拟的主句形式。另根据句意判断,这里是表示过去虚拟,故要用 would have done 形式,所以 A 正确。

We (could, might) go to that new restaurant opposite the cinema.
答案:could
解析:用于表示委婉的“建议”,此时,could并不表示过去。

You (could, may) be right, but I still don’t agree with you!
答案:may
解析:could更加的委婉和客观,因为后面的but I still don’t agree with you,所有要用may,即使两者可能性程度都很低。

The situation was bad but it (could be, may have been, could have been) worse.
答案:could have been

Thank you very much for buying me flowers. You __ (buy) me flowers.
错误答案:couldn’t have bought
正确答案:shouldn’t have bought
解析:虽然could用于表示委婉的“建议,但是couldn’t就失去了委婉的含义了。

Mary was a talented violinist at the age of ten. She __ (play) the violin very well when she was ten.
错误答案:must have played
正确答案:could play
解析:这里要表达的是过去的能力(过去的潜能)

Our worrying so much was a waste of time.=We __ (worry) so much.
错误答案:shouldn’t worry
正确答案:needn’t have worried
解析:这里的need是情态动词。表示“没必要做……”

It’s possible that the last person to leave didn’t lock the door.=The last person to leave __ (lock) the door.
错误答案:could haven’t locked
正确答案:may not have locked
解析:过去推测,在否定句中,can’t/couldn’t要比may not/might not的否定语气强烈。

She paid him and walked off. Then she realized that he __ (not, be) a deaf mute. How did she know? He must have heard her initial instructions or he __ (not, know) where to take her.
正确答案:can’t have been wouldn’t have known
解析:can’t在此表示不可能,后者是过去虚拟语气

The boss has promised that every player in NBA __ have a rise in income.
A. would B. might C. shall D. should
正确答案:C
解析:shall用于第二、三人称的陈述句中,可以表示说话人的许诺。

He was a good swimmer so he __ swim to the river bank when the boat sank.
A. could B. might C. succeeded to D. was able to
正确答案:D
解析:was able to才是表达过去具体的能力,could只能表达过去潜在的能力。

He did very badly on the exam. He __ harder.
A. must study B. must have studied C. should study D. should have studied
正确答案:D
解析:

He __ pull down a bull and acknowledged as a man with superman strength.
A. used to be able to B. would be able to C. should be able to D. might be able to
正确答案:A
解析:为什么C不可以?

This book falls overdue a week; I must be fined.
这本书过期一周了,我肯定会被罚款。

He looked __.
A. nervously
B. around nervous
C. around nervously
正确答案:C
解析:C。look作系动词时,意为“看起来”,后面接形容词作表语。look作行为动词时,意为“看”,lookC。look作系动词时,意为“看起来”,后面接形容词作表语。look作行为动词时,意为“看”,look around意为“朝周围看”,可以被副词nervously修饰,充当其方式状语。

In 1952 Ernest Hemingway published The Old Man and the Sea, __.
A. won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954
B. and the Nobel Prize for Literature won in 1954
C. in 1954 won the Nobel Prize for Literature for this work
D. a work that won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954
正确答案:D
解析:本题考查双宾语结构:win sb. sth.。这里D选项中 a work是作为同位语,补充说明The Old Man and the Sea。然后在work后边接一个定语从句。 精品译文:在1952年,欧内斯特·海明威发表了小说《老人与海》,这部作品为他赢得了1954年的诺贝尔文学奖。

The question is __ can be put into practice.
A. how you have learned
B. how that you have learned
C. that why you have learned
D. how what you have learned
正确答案:D
解析:D。这是从句的嵌套结构。首先是how引导一个表语从句,然后在此从句中,嵌套一个what引导的主语从句。其中what充当从句谓语learned的宾语。